Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is more likely in someone who gets repeated episodes of vertigo with movement and is otherwise normal between these episodes. Vertigo is classified into either peripheral or central depending on the location of the dysfunction of the vestibular pathway,  although it can also be caused by psychological factors.
Vertigo can also be classified into objective, subjective, and pseudovertigo. Objective vertigo describes when the person has the sensation that stationary objects in the environment are moving. While this classification appears in textbooks, it is unclear what relation it Pieces Of Dreams (Title Song From The United Artists Film Of The Same Name) - Shirley Bassey - Somet to the pathophysiology or treatment of vertigo.
Vertigo that is caused by problems with the inner ear or vestibular systemwhich is composed of the semicircular canalsthe vestibule utricle and sacculeand the vestibular nerve is called "peripheral", "otologic" or "vestibular" vertigo. Motion sickness is sometimes classified as a cause of peripheral vertigo. People with peripheral vertigo typically present with mild to moderate imbalancenauseavomitinghearing losstinnitusfullness, and pain in the ear.
Vertigo that arises from injury to the balance centers of the central nervous system CNSoften from a lesion in the brainstem or cerebellum   is called "central" vertigo and is generally associated with less prominent movement illusion and nausea than vertigo of peripheral origin.
The balance disorder associated with central lesions causing vertigo is often so severe that many people are unable to stand or walk. A number of conditions that involve the central nervous system may lead to vertigo including: lesions caused by infarctions or hemorrhagetumors present in the cerebellopontine angle such as a vestibular schwannoma or cerebellar tumors,   epilepsy cervical spine disorders such as cervical spondylosis degenerative ataxia disorders,  migraine headaches lateral medullary syndromeChiari malformation No Te Ame - Raphael - Amor Mío Vertigo - Various - Super Summer Hits 05  parkinsonismas well as cerebral dysfunction.
Vertigo is a sensation of spinning while stationary. The signs and symptoms of vertigo can present as a persistent insidious onset or an episodic sudden onset. Persistent onset vertigo is characterized by symptoms lasting for longer than one day  and is caused by degenerative changes that affect balance as people age.
Naturally, Immer Noch (Tommy Gunn Remix) - Sebastian Hämer - Immer Noch nerve conduction slows with aging and a decreased vibratory sensation is common.
The characteristics of an episodic onset vertigo are indicated by symptoms lasting for a smaller, more memorable amount of time, typically lasting for only seconds to minutes. The neurochemistry of vertigo includes six primary neurotransmitters that have been identified between the three-neuron arc  that drives the vestibulo-ocular reflex VOR. Glutamate maintains the resting discharge of the central vestibular neurons and may modulate synaptic transmission in all three neurons of the VOR arc.
Acetylcholine appears to function as an excitatory neurotransmitter in both the peripheral and central synapses. Gamma-Aminobutyric acid GABA is thought to be inhibitory for the commissures of the medial vestibular nucleusthe connections between the cerebellar Purkinje cellsand the lateral vestibular nucleusand the vertical VOR. Three other neurotransmitters work centrally. Dopamine may accelerate vestibular compensation.
Norepinephrine modulates the intensity of central reactions to vestibular stimulation and facilitates compensation. Histamine is present only centrally, but its role Vertigo - Various - Super Summer Hits 05 unclear. Dopamine, histamine, serotoninand acetylcholine are neurotransmitters thought to produce vomiting. Tests for vertigo often attempt to elicit nystagmus and to differentiate vertigo from other causes of dizziness such as presyncopehyperventilation syndromedisequilibriumor psychiatric causes of lightheadedness.
The HINTS test, which is a combination of three physical exam tests that may be performed by physicians at the bedside has been deemed helpful in differentiating between central and peripheral causes of vertigo.
Tests of auditory system hearing function include pure tone audiometryspeech audiometry, acoustic reflexelectrocochleography ECoGotoacoustic emissions OAEand the auditory brainstem response test. A number of specific conditions can cause vertigo. In the elderly, however, the condition is Vertigo - Various - Super Summer Hits 05 multifactorial. A recent history of underwater diving can indicate a possibility of barotrauma or decompression sickness involvement but does not exclude all other possibilities.
The dive profile By This River - Martin L. Gore - A Night With Martin L. Gore is frequently recorded by dive computer can be useful to assess a probability for decompression sickness, which can be confirmed by therapeutic recompression.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo BPPV is the most common vestibular disorder  and occurs when loose calcium carbonate debris has broken off of the otoconial membrane and enters a semicircular canal thereby creating the sensation of motion.
This is the most common cause of vertigo. Labyrinthitis presents with severe vertigo  with associated nausea, vomiting, and generalized imbalance and is believed to be caused by a viral infection of the inner ear though several theories have been put forward and the cause remains uncertain. Vestibular migraine is the association of vertigo and migraines and is one of the most common causes of recurrent, spontaneous episodes of vertigo. Other suggested causes of vestibular migraines include the following: unilateral neuronal instability of the vestibular nerve, idiopathic asymmetric activation of the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem, and vasospasm of the blood vessels supplying the labyrinth or central vestibular pathways resulting in ischemia to these structures.
Motion sickness is common and is related to vestibular migraine. It is nausea and vomiting in response to motion and is typically worse if the journey is on a winding road Fire - Mothers Finest - Mothers Finest involves lots of Soul Sister - Wet Willie - Keep On Smilin and starts, or if the person is reading in a moving car.
It is caused by a mismatch between visual input and vestibular sensation. For example, the person is reading a book which is stationary in relation to the body but the vestibular system senses that the car, and thus the body, is moving.
Alternobaric vertigo is caused by a pressure difference between the middle ear cavities, usually due to blockage or partial blockage of one eustachian tube, usually when flying or diving underwater. Vertigo is recorded as a symptom of decompression sickness in 5. Decompression sickness can also be caused at Vertigo - Various - Super Summer Hits 05 constant ambient pressure when switching between gas mixtures containing different proportions of inert gas.
This is known as isobaric counterdiffusionand presents a problem for very deep dives. Nitrogen diffuses into tissues 2. Switching between gas mixtures that have very different fractions of nitrogen and helium can result in "fast" tissues those tissues that have a good blood supply actually increasing their total inert gas loading.
This is often found to provoke inner ear decompression sickness, as the ear seems particularly sensitive to this effect. A stroke either ischemic or hemorrhagic involving the posterior fossa is a cause of central vertigo. Presentation may more often involve headache or neck pain, additionally, those who have had multiple episodes of dizziness in the months leading up to presentation are suggestive of stroke with prodromal TIAs.
Definitive treatment depends on the underlying cause of vertigo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the type of dizziness. For other uses, see Vertigo disambiguation. Not to be confused with acrophobiaan irrational fear of heights.
Type of dizziness where Vertigo - Various - Super Summer Hits 05 person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving. Main article: Alternobaric vertigo. Further information: Decompression sickness. American Family Physician. Archived from the original on Primary Care: Clinics in The Right Way (Original Mix) - Gigi Lav - The Right Way Practice.
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Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. Seminars in Neurology. American Journal of Neuroradiology. Retrieved The Merck manual of diagnostics and therapy. NY, Chicago, San Francisco. Vertigo - Various - Super Summer Hits 05 Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 2 January The Neurologist.
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Australian Family Physician. Archived PDF from the original on Baylor College of Medicine. Retrieved 19 September Vestibular Disorders Association. Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 9 Vertigo - Various - Super Summer Hits 05 Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library. Retrieved 20 November A systematic review of bedside diagnosis in acute vestibular syndrome".
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