Geoffrey Walden B. On the other hand, contemporary popular music is the style with which most in this community identify and its mass consumption by teenagers in Brisbane was heralded with the arrival of rock n roll in the mids.
This project proposes that the involvement of the music education system in, and the application of digital technology to, the Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items and storage of musical memories and memorabilia with historical potential is an important first step on the journey to a music history that is built on the democratic principles of twenty-first century, culturally and socially diverse Australia rather than on the autocratic principles of colonialist Europe.
In taking a first step, this project focused on collecting memories and memorabilia from people who were involved in an aspect of the coming of rock n roll to Brisbane. Memories were collected in the form of recorded conversations and these recordings, along with other audio and visual material were transferred to digital format for distribution. As an oral history focusing its attention on those who were involved with the coming of rock n roll to Brisbane in the mid to late s and the early s, this project is intended as a starting point for that journey.
Even as a starting point however, some interesting findings emerged. For example: ii Early Brisbane rock n roll was a suburban affair. Dancers were just as important in bringing rock n roll to Brisbane as were the musicians. Musicians not only had to learn new music on new instruments, they had to, in many cases, make their own instruments. The rock n roll story as promoted by the newspapers of the day was very different to how it is remembered by the participants.
Community institutions such as family, school and church played a vital support role in the lives of young rock n roll musicians. Brisbanes rock n roll musicians generally reflected the conservative nature of their community.
Brisbanes very early rock n roll musicians were strongly influenced by country and western music. Once the commercial viability of rock n roll became evident, it became more accepted as an entertainment format. Of the many thousands of people who lived in Brisbane during the s and who had an interest in or were affected by the coming of rock n roll, only a very small percentage were involved in this project.
This would indicate that there is a significant body of untold memories and stories waiting to respond to the interest of Queensland music students. Keywords Rock n roll, music history, Brisbane music history, oral history, music education, rock n roll history iii I declare that the work presented in Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items thesis is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and my own work, except as acknowledged in the text, and that the material has not been submitted either in whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university.
Geoffrey Walden January iv Acknowledgements I would like to thank all those who in some way have made the completion of this thesis possible. Most important are those people who lived and worked in Brisbane during the early days of rock n roll and who enthusiastically made their memories available. This project belongs to them. In thanking Sata Amasagana - Psalms* - Up Front citys rockers as participants in this project, it is important to remember John Bell who passed away during the period of the research.
He was influential in getting the project started and keeping it on track. This project, as well as the Brisbane rock n roll scene would have been that much poorer without his influence over the past forty years. Dr Gordon Tait has been my supervisor for the majority of time I spent on this thesis and it is to him that I owe a debt of gratitude for his time, support and encouragement. Many is the time he had to redirect my thought processes to ensure that I didnt succumb to my usual urge to not-so-subtly hint that the entire process is a crock of shit Tait, Thanks Gordon, it has been a pleasure to work with you.
My sincere thanks also must go to Dr Belinda Carpenter for her time, support and editorial comment. Her valued input has been essential in getting my Ya No Te Creas - Various - Bachatahits 2004 into a readable form.
Projects like this cannot be completed without a generous support base at home so its a special thanks to my family for their support over the years and especially to Lorraine for her generous assistance and encouragement.
A Trio of Challenges Disks 2 and 3 contain the conversations recorded with the participants as well as the transcriptions of those conversations. On Disk 2 can be found the conversations of people with a surname beginning with the letters A to J while the remainder of the conversations are available on Disk 3. Disk 1 contains data directly related to the printed section of the project. Accessing the CDs 1. If it is not and the CD does not start, follow Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items 2 3 below.
From the Windows Start Soledad - Julio Sosa - Album de Oro Vol.2, click on Start. The file needed to start each CD is listed in a table below. This will take you back to your OK window.
Click OK to start the program. The music playing in the background for this screen is a song called Billys Blues and was recorded by Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items Dominos at the 4BH studios in If you cant hear the sound, check the Volume control in the bottom right hand corner of the screen.
When you are ready to proceed, click on the Main Menu button. All sections of the project are available from resultant menu. When you have finished, click on Quit from this menu and your screen Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items be returned to its previous glory. Illustration 1: First screen from Disk 1. To hear a recorded conversation, click on the appropriate bubble and then the appropriate name.
Illustration 2: First screen from Disks 2 and 3. Because the audio files are rather large, it may take a few seconds for the screen to change to something like below and for the sound to start. The volume of the conversation may be controlled by the green button near the top right hand corner Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items the screen.
It is set to full volume at the start of each conversation and should be dragged down to lower the volume. The up and down arrows below the volume control allow for Yeaaaah! - The Light Circle - Yeaaaah! through the transcript. Preface xv Illustration 3: Working screen from Disks 2 and 3. As far back asthe then Director-General of Education, Mr Frank Peach, stated in an article headed Social Justice and Excellence that: Because of the diversity of our students and the values held by them and their parents, our schools must ensure that curriculum and management practices are sensitive to the range of circumstances, learning styles and individual needs, and build on the experiences of students.
Peach, More current and included in the Department of Education Manual on Education Queenslands website is a policy statement which reads: Education Queensland recognizes and values the cultural and language diversity of every school and community.
It has a role and responsibility to contribute to a socially just society by promoting equitable and fair access to, participation in, and outcomes from, the education provided for students who make up these diverse groups. This policy focuses on addressing inequalities through the reshaping of the curriculum in responding to the educational needs of culturally and linguistically diverse groups and deciding on cultural learning for all students.
DOEM, Music education made its way into in the Queensland secondary curriculum in the s and is thus a relatively new addition. This state was the last in Australia to include music as a subject in the secondary school curriculum Bridges,p. According to Stowasserthe system that was introduced into Queensland was based on a British model of music education.
The IMP is staffed by itinerant teachers or instructors who visit a cluster of schools on a weekly rotation and their job Born To Lose Live To Win - The Dirtys - You Should Be Sinnin to provide small group tuition on orchestral instruments during school hours and to organise and direct extra-curricular ensembles, be they orchestra, concert band or stage band.
The CMP on the other hand is treated as a traditional school subject and is taught by school based music teachers as part of the general school timetable. It can be included in the calculation of a students OP score. Music plays an important social and cultural role in the lives of young people and the community in general Willis,p.
This is evidenced by the great effort exerted by school communities to gain and maintain the services of classroom and instrumental music teachers.
Students appear to value what is offered in the music curriculum somewhat less though. Recent research Walden, indicates that for the CMP, the year 12 Board Course in music at Queensland schools is one of the least selected subjects, attracting an average of 7.
Introduction 3 Given these numbers and the significant allocation of public resources provided for music education, one should wonder why so few school students are taking advantage of music education as offered in Queensland schools.
It is proposed that at least part of the answer to that question can be found in what has become the common sense, universal and sacred understandings associated with the word music in the education arena. To most music teachers and their school music programs, Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items central focus of the music education system of which they are a productis not the music most closely related to the their students knowledge, experiences or perspectives but the form of music that was originally written by Europeans for consumption by the upper classes dating back from roughly the medieval era to the first decades of the twentieth century Wicks,p.
So deeply has this Classical music, that is Western European Art Music WEAMbecome entrenched in the education system of this state that cultural bias has become invisible and we are rarely even aware of the throttling hold it has on our musical conscience Wicks,p. It would seem reasonable then that an education system that values cultural diversity should champion a challenge to this entrenchment and attempt to render evident the monocultural perspective Wicks,p.
Why do we offer in the IMP only instruments with which few in the general community identify and which few students will ever play after they finish school? Why do we legitimate through school performances musical styles with which a minority in the community identify?
Why do we offer a CMP which concentrates on musical styles that are unrepresentative of the social and cultural background of most of our students and their families and which focuses on musical languages and traditions foreign to the music with which most of them identify?
It is relatively unlikely however, that such a challenge will be championed from within Education Queensland despite its need to operate in an increasingly diverse society.
As pointed out by Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items p. Introduction 5 Music students, including prospective music teachers, have been encouraged and expected to demonstrate their progressive level of technical and musical skill by passing through graded examinations and gaining their letters as offered by one or more of the examination boards. For instance, a year 12 student who gained an A. According to Bourdieup. As a product of colonialist European culture, WEAM is based on traditions associated with the expansion and imposition of that culture around the world during the past two hundred years.
An orchestra or concert band for instance can only function musically because of its autocratic structure. While democratic mores have found their way into many other facets of Queensland education in recent times, WEAM must now be considered one last bastion of Western colonialism Moderna Djevojka - Prljavo Kazalište - Crno Bijeli Svijet this hemisphere, a stronghold of the principles of class hierarchy that represents in the public mind the unqualified preeminence of elite Western values in a singularly even stunningly diverse society Wicks,p.
Important in maintaining the unchallenged stature of WEAM in the education system has been the parallel development in Europe of history as a profession. Those with suitable wealth and power had access to the history Introduction 6 profession to have their view of the music experience recorded for posterity in notated form. WEAM has depended for its very existence on this association.
According to Thompsonp. This is why children are taught history in schools. A social purpose of the history of WEAM has been to cement its position of prestige in the education system as unique and unchallengeable and thereby promote its cultural meanings by rewarding those who choose to adopt them.
An examination of the official secondary and tertiary curricular offerings in music education facilities in Queensland indicates that WEAM history has carried out its social purpose to perfection. Challenging that success is not to denigrate the fact that those associated with the composition, performance, documentation Gleden Over Å Være I Sitt Rette Element - Jinchūriki - Kyūbi scholarship of WEAM have made a significant contribution to social, cultural and economic life as it is presently experienced in the Western world.
However, music history in the twenty-first century should Interview - Johnny OKeefe - JOK Rare Items a different social purpose to that which has been inherited from the colonial Mr. Fist - Catch 22 - Volume 2 it should be presented in educational institutions as representative of the democracy as defined by the social and cultural diversity of the nation.
Changing that purpose will present some challenges to interested music educators. While it may be reasonable to suggest that one challenge might involve teachers presenting the history of WEAM from a critical perspective in view of its elite and autocratic lineage, a much more important challenge involves the point that WEAM history does not include the musical experiences of the Introduction 7 poor, of the disenfranchised or of the working class.
The history of those groups has not made it to the official history books and never will, given the finite Come Down - Lostribe - Sophie of human life. While there is little that Queensland music educators can do about that situation, there is much that can be done to ensure that future generations have access to a music history that is representative of as many facets of the community as possible, a history that is defined by the democratic traditions of twenty-first century Australia rather than those of colonialist Europe.
Involving students and teachers in the collection of music history will be a useful first step in creating a new social purpose for music history.
The first is that pop music has only recently gained any legitimacy as a field of academic enquiry. The second follows on in that because of the short time span, there is little consensus as to how that research should be carried out.
Φαντασία - Κώστας Μάνεσης - Στο Παλιό Γραμμόφωνο, Forever And Ever - Various - De Feestfabriek, Island Of Fantasy - Vanua Levu - Dreams Of Fantasy Islands, Stormy Love - Laura Nyro - Smile, Begin The Begin - R.E.M. - Tourfilm (DVD)