A bouncer also known as a doorman or door supervisor is a type of security guardemployed at venues such as barsnightclubsstripclubscasinoshotelsbilliard hallsrestaurantssporting eventsor concerts. A bouncer's duties are to provide security, to check legal age and drinking ageto refuse entry for intoxicated Tumultus - Maxime Dangles / Nicolas Masseyeff - 1+1, and to deal with aggressive behavior or non-compliance with statutory or establishment rules.
They are civilians and they are often hired directly by the venue, rather than by a security firm. Bouncers are often required where crowd size, clientele or alcohol consumption may make arguments or fights a possibility, or where the threat or presence of criminal gang activity or violence is high. In the United Statescivil liability and court costs related to the use of force by bouncers are "the highest preventable loss found within the [bar] industry", as many United States bouncers are often taken to court and other countries have similar problems of excessive force.
In many countries, federal or state governments Bouncer - Various - Amuck taken steps to professionalise the industry by requiring bouncers to have training, licensing, and a criminal records background check. In the s and s, increased awareness of the risks of lawsuits and criminal charges have led many bars and venues to train their bouncers to use communication and conflict resolution skills before, or rather than, Silver Threads Among The Gold - Crescent Trio, Henry Burr - Silver Threads Among The Gold / In The V to brute force against troublemakers.
However, the earlier history of the occupation suggests that the stereotype of bouncers as rough, Fantasy - Various - Alfs Super Hitparade, physical enforcers has indeed been the case in many countries and cultures throughout history. Historical references also suggest that the 'doorman' function of guarding a place and selecting who can have entry to it the stereotypical task of the modern bouncer could at times be an honorific and evolve into The Look Of Love - Steve Douglas - Reflections In A Golden Horn relatively important position.
The significance of the doorman as the person allowing or barring entry is found in a number of Mesopotamian myths and later in Greek Bouncer - Various - Amuck descended from themincluding that of Nergal overcoming the seven doormen guarding the gates to the Underworld.
In 1 Chronicles 26 of the Old Testamentthe Levitical Temple is described as having a number of 'gatekeepers'—amongst their duties are "protect[ing] the temple from theft", from "illegal entry into sacred areas" and "maintain[ing] order", all functions they share with the modern concept of the bouncer, though the described temple servants also serve as holy persons and administrators themselves  it is noted that some administrative function is still present in today's bouncing in the higher position of the supervisor.
Doormen or bouncers are usually larger persons who display great strength and size. The Romans had a position known as the ostiarius doorkeeperinitially a slave, who guarded the door, and sometimes ejected unwanted people from the house whose gate he guarded.
The term later become a low-ranking clergy title. Tertullianan early Christian author living mainly in the 1st century AD, while reporting on the casual oppression of Christians in Carthagenoted that bouncers were counted as part of a semi-legal underworld, amongst other 'shady' characters such as gamblers and pimps.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, US saloon-keepers and brothel madams hired bouncers to remove troublesome, violent, Bouncer - Various - Amuck dead-drunk patrons, and to protect the saloon girls and prostitutes. The word "bouncer" Bouncer - Various - Amuck first popularized in a novel by Horatio Algercalled The Young Outlawwhich was first published in Alger was an Ani DiFranco - Educated Guess popular author in the 19th century, especially with young people and his books were widely quoted.
In Chapter XIV, entitled "Bounced", a boy is thrown out of a restaurant because he has no money to pay for his dinner:. Bounce him! The waiter seized him by the collar, before he knew what was going to happen, pushed him to the door, and then, lifting his foot by a well-directed kick, landed him across the sidewalk into the street.
This proceeding was followed by derisive laughter from the other waiters who had gathered near the door, and it was echoed by two street urchins outside, who witnessed Sam's ignominious exit from the restaurant. Sam staggered from the force of the bouncing, and felt disgraced and Bouncer - Various - Amuck to think that the waiter who had been so respectful and attentive should have inflicted upon him such an indignity, which he had no power to resent.
An newspaper article stated that "'The Bouncer' is merely the English 'chucker out'. When liberty verges on license and gaiety on wanton delirium, the Bouncer selects the gayest of the gay, and—bounces him!
In US Western towns in the s, high-class brothels known as "good houses" or "parlour houses" hired bouncers for security and to prevent patrons from evading payment. For security, "somewhere in every parlor Bouncer - Various - Amuck there was The Eyes Of A Child - Tarja* - Christmas Concert (DVD) a bouncer, a giant of a man who stayed sober to handle any customer who got too rough with one of the Band From Chicago - Max Creek - Windows or didn't want to pay his bill.
In Wisconsin's lumberjack days, bouncers would physically remove drinkers who were too drunk to keep buying drinks, and thus free up space in the bar for new patrons.
The slang term 'snake-room' was used to describe a " To attract business, " In the late 19th century, bouncers at small town dances and bars physically resolved disputes and removed troublemakers, without worrying about lawsuits. In the main bar in one Iowa town, " There were no court costs [for the bouncers or the bar]; only some aches and pains [for the troublemakers]. In the s and s, bouncers were used to maintain order in "The Gut", the roughest part of New York City's Coney Islandwhich was filled with "ramshackle groups of wooden shanties", bars, cabarets, fleabag hotels and brothels.
Huge bouncers patrolled these venues of vice and "roughly ejected anyone who violated the loose rules of decorum" by engaging in pick-pocketing, jewelry thieving, or bloody fights.
During the s, San Diego had a similarly rough waterfront area and redlight district called the ' Stingaree ', where bouncers worked the door at brothels. Prostitutes worked at the area's bawdy houses in small rooms, paying a fee to the procurer who usually was the bouncer or 'protector' of the brothel. The more expensive, higher-class brothels were called "parlour houses", and they were "run most decorously", and the "best of food and drink was served.
A bouncer made sure he did". As ballroom dancing was often considered as an activity which could lead to immoral conduct if the dancers got too close, some of the more reputable venues had Bouncer - Various - Amuck to remind patrons not to dance closer than nine inches to their partners. The bouncers' warnings tended to consist of light taps on the Bouncer - Various - Amuck at first, and then progressed to sterner remonstrations.
In the s, bars in the bawdiest parts Bouncer - Various - Amuck Baltimore, Maryland docks hired bouncers to maintain order and eject aggressive patrons. The Oasis club, operated by Max Cohen, hired " Mickey was always considerate of the people she bounced; first asking them where they lived and then throwing them in that general direction. She was succeeded by Bouncer - Various - Amuck character known as 'Machine-Gun Butch' who was a long-time bouncer at the club". In the Weimar Republic in the Germany of the s and early s, doormen protected venues from the fights caused by Nazis and other potentially violent groups such as Communists.
Such scenes were fictionalised in the movie Cabaret. Hitler surrounded himself with a number of former bouncers such as Christian Weber ;  the SS originated as a group designated to protect party meetings.
In early Nazi Germanysome bouncers in underground jazz clubs were also hired to screen for Nazi spies, because jazz was considered a "degenerate" form of music by the Nazi party. Bouncers also often come into conflict with football hooligansdue to the tendency of groups of hooligans to congregate at pubs and bars before and after games.
In the United Kingdom for example, long-running series of feuds between fan groups like The Blades and groups of bouncers in the s were described by researchers. Bouncers have also been known to be associated with criminal gangs, especially in places like Russia, Hong Kong or Japan, where bouncers may often belong to these groups or have to pay the crime syndicates to be able to operate.
Hong Kong also features a somewhat unusual situation where some bouncers are known to work for prostitutes, instead of being their pimps. Hong Kong police have noted that due to the letter of the law, they sometimes had to charge the bouncer for illegally extorting the women when the Fiction In Hope - Crossfaith - The Artificial Theory For The Dramatic Beauty expected dominance situation between the sex worker and her "protector" was in fact reversed.
In the s and s, a number of bouncers have written "tell-all" books about their experiences on the door. They indicate that male bouncers are respected by some club-goers as the ultimate 'hard men', while at the same time, these bouncers can also be lightning rods for aggression and macho posturing on the part of obnoxious male customers wanting to prove themselves. Bouncers were selected as one of the groups studied by several English researchers in the s because their culture was seen as "grounded in violence", as well as because the group had increasingly been "demonised", especially in common liberal discourse see Research section of this article.
Bouncer - Various - Amuck the early s, an Australian government study on violence stated that violent incidents in public drinking locations are caused by the interaction of five factors: aggressive and unreasonable bouncers, groups of male strangers, low comfort e.
The research indicated that bouncers did not play as large a role " Many seem poorly trained, obsessed with their own machismo, and relate badly to groups of male strangers. Some of them appear to regard their employment as giving them a licence to assault people. This may be encouraged by management adherence to a repressive model of supervision of patrons "if they play up, thump 'em"which in fact does not reduce trouble, and exacerbates an already hostile and aggressive situation.
In practice many bouncers are not well managed in their work, and appear to be given a job autonomy and discretion that they cannot handle well. A article "Responses by Security Staff to Aggressive Incidents in Public Settings" in the Journal of Drug Issues examined violent incidents involving crowd controllers bouncers that occurred in bars in Toronto, OntarioCanada.
The controllers' actions involved gratuitous aggression, harassment of patrons and provocative behaviour. At least one major ethnographic study also observed bouncing from Bouncer - Various - Amuck , as part of a British project to study violent subcultures.
Beyond studying the bouncer culture from the outside, the group selected a suitable candidate for covert, long-term research. The man had previously worked as a bouncer before becoming an academic, and while conversant with the milieu, it required some time for him to re-enter bouncing work in a new locality.
One of the main ethical issues of the research was the participation of the researcher in violence, and to what Bouncer - Various - Amuck he would be allowed to participate.
The group could not fully resolve this issue, as the undercover researcher would not have been able to gain the trust of his peers while shying away from the use of force. As part of the study it eventually became clear that bouncers themselves were similarly and constantly weighing up the limits and uses of their participation in violence. The research however found that instead of being a part of the occupation, violence itself was the defining characteristic, a "culture created around violence and violent expectation".
The bouncing culture's insular attitudes also extended to the recruitment process, which was mainly by word of mouth as opposed to typical job recruitment, and also depended heavily on previous familiarity with violence.
This does not extend to the prospective bouncer himself having to have a reputation for violence—rather a perception was needed that he could deal with it if required. Various other elements, such as body language or physical looks muscles, shaved heads were also described as often expected for entry into bouncing—being part of the symbolic 'narratives of intimidation' that set bouncers apart in their work environment.
Training on the job was described as very limited, with the new bouncers being 'thrown into the deep end'—the fact that they had been accepted for the job in the first place including the assessment that they should know what they are doing though informal observation of a beginner's behaviour was commonplace.
In the case of the British research project, the legally required licensing as a bouncer was also found to be Bouncer - Various - Amuck by employers before applicants started the job and as licensing generally excluded people with criminal convictions, this kept out some of the more unstable violent personalities.
An ability to judge and communicate well with people will reduce the need for physical intervention, while a steady personality will prevent the bouncer from being easily provoked by customers. Bouncers need to be Bouncer - Various - Amuck to detect the early warning signs of a potential confrontation with a patron, Fallen - Various - Cream Chilled Electronic observing crowds and individuals and spotting the signs of a "heated" interaction that could become a fight .
Bouncers also profit from good Bouncer - Various - Amuck communication skills, because they are often required to document assaults in an incident log or using an incident form.
Well-kept incident logs can protect the employee from any potential criminal charges or lawsuits that later arise from an incident. However, British research from the s also indicates that a major El Amante De Fuego - Mecano - ¿Dónde Está El País De Las Hadas? of both the group identity and the job satisfaction of bouncers is related to their self image as a strongly masculine person who is capable of dealing with — and dealing out — violence; their employment income plays a lesser role in their job satisfaction.
Bouncer subculture is strongly influenced by perceptions of honour and shame, a typical characteristic of groups that are in the public eye,  as well as warrior cultures in general.
Factors in enjoying work as a bouncer were also found in the general prestige and respect that was Commercial Chart Mix - Various - The Commercial Collection 213 to bouncers, sometimes bordering on hero worship.
The camaraderie between bouncers even of different clubsas well as the ability to work "in the moment" and outside of the drudgery of typical jobs were also often cited. The same research has also indicated that the decisions made by bouncers, while seeming haphazard to Bouncer - Various - Amuck outsider, often have a basis in rational logic. The decision to turn certain customers away at the door because of too casual clothing face control is for example often based on the perception that the person will be Bouncer - Various - Amuck willing to fight compared to someone dressed in expensive attire.
Many similar decisions taken by a bouncer during the course of a night are also being described as based on experience rather than just personality. Movies often depict bouncers physically throwing patrons out of clubs and restraining drunk customers with headlocks, which has led to a popular misconception that bouncers have Bouncer - Various - Amuck reserve the right to use physical force freely.
However, in many countries bouncers Bouncer - Various - Amuck no legal authority to use physical force more freely than any other civilian—meaning they are restricted to reasonable levels of force used in self defenseto eject drunk or aggressive patrons refusing to leave a venue, or when restraining a patron who has committed an offence until police arrive.
With civil liability and court costs related to the use of force as "the highest preventable loss found within the industry In Australia, the number of complaints and lawsuits against venues due to the behaviour of their bouncers has been credited Bouncer - Various - Amuck turning many establishments to using former police officers to head their in-house security, instead of hiring private firms.
According to statistical research in Canada, bouncers are as likely to face physical violence in their work as urban-area police officers. The research also found that the likelihood of such encounters increased with statistical significance with the number of years the bouncer had worked in his occupation.
An article from about bouncers in Toronto Canada stated that a major security firm instructs its bouncers to buy bulletproof vestsas Bouncer - Various - Amuck have to deal with armed patrons on a nightly basis. Lee Vineyard recommends that bouncers be provided with uniforms by the club, so that patrons can identify the bouncers. During a fight in a bar, if the bouncers are un-uniformed as they approach the altercation, the fighting patrons may believe that the bouncers who are intervening are other fighting patrons, rather than security staff.
Use of force training programs teach bouncers ways to avoid using force and explain what types of force are considered allowable by the courts. However, if the police are called too frequently, it can reflect badly on the venue upon renewal of its liquor licence.
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