Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht [a] 10 February — 14 Augustknown professionally as Bertolt Brechtwas a German theatre practitionerplaywrightand poet. Coming of age during the Weimar Republiche had his first successes as a playwright in Munich and Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf to Berlin inwhere he wrote The Threepenny Opera with Kurt Weill and began a lifelong collaboration with the composer Hanns Eisler. Returning to East Berlin after the war, he established the theatre company Berliner Ensemble with his wife and long-time collaborator, actress Helene Weigel.
Brecht's mother was a Schöner Gigolo - Various - Party-Knüller (55 Hits Am Laufenden Band) Protestant and his father a Roman Catholic who had been persuaded to have a Protestant wedding.
The modest house where he was born is today preserved as a Brecht Museum. Due to his mother's influence, Brecht knew the Bible, a familiarity that would have a lifelong effect on his writing. From her, too, came the "dangerous image of the self-denying woman" that recurs in his drama. Neher designed many of the sets for Brecht's dramas and helped to forge the distinctive visual iconography of their epic theatre.
When Brecht was 16, the First World War broke out. Initially enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his classmates "swallowed by the army". His expulsion was only prevented through the intervention of his religion teacher. On his father's recommendation, Brecht sought a loophole by registering for a medical course at Munich Universitywhere he enrolled in From JulyBrecht's newspaper articles began appearing under the new name "Bert Brecht" his first theatre criticism for the Augsburger Volkswille appeared in October In Brecht's mother died.
Some time in either orBrecht took a small part in the political cabaret of the Munich comedian Karl Valentin. But the man he learnt most from was the clown Valentinwho performed in a beer-hall. He did short sketches in which he played refractory employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employers Various - Joyas Musicales Del Género Chico.
Zarzuelas. La Tempranica / La Verbena De La Paloma / Agu made them look ridiculous. The employer was played by his partner, Liesl Karlstadt, a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself out and speak in a deep bass voice. Brecht's first full-length play, Baal writtenarose in response to an argument in one of Kutscher's drama seminars, initiating a trend that persisted throughout his career of creative activity that was generated by a desire to counter Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf work both others' and his own, as his many adaptations and re-writes attest.
Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf November and April Brecht made acquaintance with many influential people in the Berlin cultural scene.
Brecht changed the spelling of his first name to Bertolt to rhyme with Arnolt. In while still living in Munich, Brecht came to the attention of an influential Berlin critic, Herbert Ihering : "At 24 the writer Bert Brecht has changed Germany's literary complexion overnight"—he enthused in his review of Brecht's first play to be produced, Drums in the Night —"[he] has given our time a new tone, a new melody, a new vision.
Brecht is a dramatist because his language is felt physically and in the round. Their daughter, Hanne Hiobwas a successful German actress.
Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf Brecht wrote a scenario for what was to become a short slapstick film, Mysteries of a Barbershopdirected by Erich Engel and starring Karl Valentin. Opening night proved to Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf a "scandal"—a phenomenon that would characterize many of his later productions during the Weimar Republic —in which Nazis blew whistles and threw stink bombs at the actors on the stage.
In Brecht worked with the novelist and playwright Lion Feuchtwanger whom he had met in on an adaptation of Christopher Marlowe 's Edward II that proved to be a milestone in Brecht's early theatrical and dramaturgical development.
In Brecht's marriage to Zoff began to break down though they did not divorce until In his role as dramaturg, Brecht had much to stimulate him but little work of his own. In the asphalt city I'm at home. From the very start Provided with every last sacrament: With newspapers. And tobacco. And brandy To the end mistrustful, lazy and content.
She continued to work with him after Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf publisher's commission ran out. In in Mannheim the artistic exhibition Neue Sachlichkeit " New Objectivity " had given its name to the new post- Expressionist movement Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf the German arts.
With little to do at the Deutsches Theater, Brecht began to develop his Man Equals Man project, which was to become the first product of "the 'Brecht collective'—that shifting group of friends and collaborators on whom he henceforward depended.
Together the "collective" would go to fights, not only absorbing their terminology and ethos which permeates Man Equals Man but also drawing those conclusions for the theatre as a whole which Brecht set down in his theoretical essay "Emphasis on Sport" and tried to realise by means of the harsh lighting, the boxing-ring stage and other anti-illusionistic devices that henceforward appeared in his own productions.
In a series of short stories was published under Brecht's name, though Hauptmann was closely associated with writing them. Erwin Piscator In Brecht became part of the " dramaturgical collective" of Erwin Piscator 's first company, which was designed to tackle the problem of finding new plays for its "epic, political, confrontational, documentary theatre".
The emphasis on Reason and didacticism, the sense that the new subject matter demanded a new dramatic formthe use of songs to interrupt and comment: all these are found in his notes and essays of the s, and he bolstered them by citing such Piscatorial examples as the step-by-step narrative technique of Schweik and the oil interests handled in Konjunktur 'Petroleum resists the five-act form'.
Brecht was struggling at the time with the question of how to dramatize the complex economic relationships Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf modern capitalism in his unfinished project Joe P. Fleischhacker which Piscator's theatre announced in its programme for the —28 season.
It wasn't until his Saint Joan of the Stockyards written between — that Brecht solved it. From that point on Caspar Neher became an integral part of the collaborative effort, with words, music and visuals conceived in relation to one another from the start.
The principle, a variety of montageproposed by-passing the "great struggle for supremacy between Cielito Lindo - The Longines Symphonette - Memories Of Fiesta, music and production" as Brecht put it, by showing each as self-contained, independent works of art that adopt attitudes Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf one another.
In Brecht married Weigel; their daughter Barbara Brecht was born soon after the wedding. Brecht formed a writing collective which became prolific and very influential. Elisabeth HauptmannMargarete Steffin, Emil Burri, Ruth Berlau and others worked with Brecht and produced the multiple teaching playswhich attempted to create a new dramaturgy for participants rather than passive audiences.
These addressed themselves to the massive worker arts organisation that existed in Germany and Austria in the s. So did Brecht's first great play, Saint Joan of the Stockyardswhich attempts to portray the drama in financial transactions. Retitled The Threepenny Opera Die Dreigroschenoper it was the biggest hit in Berlin of the s and a renewing influence on the musical worldwide. One of its most famous lines underscored the hypocrisy of Seagulls Screaming Kiss Her, Kiss Her - XTC - Upsy Daisy Assortment - A Selection Of The Sweetest Hi morality imposed by the Church, working in conjunction with the established order, in the face of working-class hunger and deprivation:.
It was a personal and a commercial failure. At the time the book was purported to be by the mysterious Dorothy Lane now known to be Elisabeth Hauptmann, Brecht's secretary and close collaborator. Brecht only claimed authorship of the song texts. Brecht would later use elements of Happy End as the germ for his Saint Joan of the Stockyardsa play that would never see the stage in Brecht's lifetime.
The Mahagonny opera would premier later in Berlin in Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf a triumphant sensation. These were a group of plays driven by morals, music and Brecht's budding epic theatre. In addition, Brecht worked on a script for a semi-documentary feature film about the human impact of mass unemployment, Kuhle Wampewhich was directed by Slatan Dudow. It still provides a vivid insight into Berlin during the last years of the Weimar Republic. Galileoin Brecht's Life of Galileo They later bought their own house in Svendborg on Funen.
This house located at Skovsbo Strand 8 in Svendborg became the residence of the Brecht family for the next six years, where they often received guests including Walter BenjaminHanns Eisler and Ruth Berlau. During this period Brecht also travelled frequently to Copenhagen, Paris, Moscow, New York and London for various projects and collaborations.
When war seemed imminent in Aprilhe moved to StockholmSweden, where he remained for a year. During the war years, Brecht became a prominent writer of the Exilliteratur. Jingle Bells - Jim Reeves - 12 Songs Of Christmas Also Die!
In Brecht's reluctance to help Carola Neherwho died in a gulag Wagner*, Ivar Andresen* Und Mitglieder Der Kapelle Der Staatsoper Berlin - Karfreitagszauber / Titur in the USSR after being arrested during the purgescaused much controversy among Russian emigrants in the West.
Although he was one of 19 witnesses who declared that they would refuse to appear, Brecht eventually decided to testify. He later explained that he had followed the advice of attorneys and had not wanted to delay a planned trip to Europe. On 30 October Brecht testified that he had never been a member of the Communist Party. The remaining witnesses, the so-called Hollywood Tenrefused to testify and were cited for contempt.
Brecht's decision to appear before the committee led to criticism, including accusations of betrayal. The day after his testimony, on 31 October, Brecht returned to Europe. He lived in Zurich in Switzerland for a year. It was published under the title Antigonemodellaccompanied by an essay on the importance of creating a " non-Aristotelian " form of theatre.
Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf he moved to East Berlin and established his theatre company there, the Berliner Ensemble. He retained his Austrian nationality granted in and overseas bank accounts from which he received valuable hard currency remittances.
The copyrights on his writings were held by a Swiss company. Though he was never a member of the Communist Party, Brecht had been schooled in Marxism by the dissident communist Karl Korsch.
Korsch's version of the Marxist dialectic influenced Brecht greatly, both his aesthetic theory and theatrical practice. Brecht received the Stalin Peace Prize in Brecht wrote very few plays in his final years in East Berlin, none of them as famous as his previous works.
He Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf himself to directing Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf and developing the talents of the next generation of young directors and dramaturgs, such as Manfred Wekwerth, Benno Besson and Carl Weber. At this time he wrote some of his most famous poems, including the "Buckow Elegies".
At first Brecht apparently supported the measures taken by the East German government against the uprising of in East Germanywhich included the use of Soviet military force. The great discussion [exchange] with the masses about the speed of socialist construction will lead to a viewing and safeguarding of the socialist achievements. After the uprising of the 17th of June The Secretary of the Writers Union Had leaflets distributed in the Stalinallee Stating that the people Had forfeited the confidence of the government And could win it back only By redoubled efforts.
Would it not be easier In that case for the government To dissolve the people And elect another? Brecht died on 14 August  of a heart attack at the age of According to Stephen Parker, who reviewed Brecht's writings and unpublished medical records, Brecht contracted rheumatic fever as a child, which led to an enlarged heart, followed by lifelong chronic heart failure and Sydenham's chorea.
A report of a radiograph taken of Brecht in describes a badly diseased heart, enlarged to the left with a protruding aortic knob and with seriously impaired pumping. Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf colleagues described him as being very nervous, and sometimes shaking his head or moving his hands erratically. This can be reasonably attributed to Sydenham's chorea, which is also associated with emotional labilitypersonality changes, Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf behavior, and hyperactivity, which matched Brecht's behavior.
Brecht developed the combined theory and practice of his " Epic theatre " by synthesizing and extending the experiments of Erwin Piscator and Vsevolod Meyerhold to explore the theatre as a forum for political ideas and the creation of a critical aesthetics Ofe Owerri - Ishie Brothers - A Bridge Across Time dialectical materialism.
Epic Theatre proposed that a play should not cause the spectator to identify emotionally with the characters or action before him or her, but should instead provoke rational self-reflection and a critical view of the action on the stage. Brecht Little Roy - Tribal War that the experience of a climactic catharsis of emotion Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf an audience complacent.
Instead, he wanted Credo - Bertolf - Bertolf audiences to adopt a critical perspective in order to recognise social injustice and exploitation and to be moved to go forth from the theatre and effect change in the world outside.