A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder. The earliest camcorders were tape-based, recording analog signals onto videotape cassettes.
Indigital recording became the norm, with tape replaced by storage media such as mini-HD, microDVD, internal flash memory and SD cards. More recent devices capable of recording video are camera phones Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) digital cameras primarily intended for still pictures; the term "camcorder" may be used to describe a portable, self-contained device, with Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) capture and recording its primary function, often having advanced functions over more common cameras.
Video cameras originally designed for Донская - Валерий Горбачев - Казачий broadcast Pistachio Ride - All Good Neighbourhood Alliance - All Good Neighbourhood large and heavy, mounted on special pedestals and wired to remote recorders in separate rooms.
As technology improved, out-of-studio video recording was possible with compact video cameras and portable video recorders ; a detachable recording unit could be carried to a shooting location. Although the camera itself was compact, the need for a separate recorder made on-location shooting a two-person job. Portable recorders meant that recorded video footage could be aired on the early-evening news, since it was no longer necessary to develop film.
InSony released the first camcorder, the Betacam system, for professional use. The Betacam used the same cassette format 0. It became standard equipment for broadcast news. These shoulder-mount camcorders were used by videophilesindustrial videographers and college TV studios. Digital technology emerged with the Sony D1a device which recorded uncompressed data and required a large amount of bandwidth for its time.
In Ampex introduced DCTthe first digital video format with data compression using the discrete cosine transform algorithm present in most commercial digital video formats. In Sony, JVC, Panasonic and other video-camera manufacturers launched DVwhich became a de facto standard for home video production, independent filmmaking and citizen journalism.
That year, Ikegami introduced Editcam the first tapeless video recording system. Camcorders using DVD media were popular at the turn of the 21st century due to the convenience of being able to drop a disc into the family DVD player ; however, DVD capability, due to the limitations of the format, is largely limited to I Aint Never Seen No One Like You - George Strait - Blue Clear Sky equipment targeted at people who are not likely to spend any great amount of effort video editing their video footage.
With the proliferation of file -based digital formats, the relationship between recording media and recording format has declined; video can be recorded onto different media. With tapeless formats, recording media are storage for digital files. It is a 2D camcorder which can shoot in HD; 3D is achieved by a detachable conversion lens. The Sony's 3D lens is built in, but it can shoot 2D video.
Panasonic has also released 2D camcorders with an optional 3D conversion lens. The camera also has a 3-step ND filter switch for maintaining a shallow depth of field or a softer appearance to motion.
In HD capture, the camcorder get benefit to Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) noises of small sensor by in-camera downscaling of the 4K image to HD.
Camcorders have three major components: lens, imager and recorder. The lens gathers light, focusing it on the imager. The recorder converts the electrical signal to video, encoding it in a storable form. Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) lens and imager comprise the "camera" section.
The lens is the first component of the light path. Camcorder optics generally have one or more of the following controls:. In consumer units these adjustments are often automatically controlled by the camcorder, but can be adjusted manually if desired. Professional-grade units offer user control of all major optical functions. The imager, often a CCDor a photodiode array which may be an Active Pixel Sensorconverts light into an electrical signal.
The camera lens projects an image onto the imager surface, exposing the photosensitive array to light. This light exposure is converted into an electrical charge.
At the end of the timed exposure, the imager converts the accumulated charge into a continuous analog voltage at the imager's output terminals. After the conversion is complete, the photosites reset to start the exposure of the next video frame. In many cases the photosites per pixel are actually reset globally by charging to a fixed voltage, and discharged towards zero individually proportionally to the accumulated light, because it is simpler to manufacture the sensor that way.
Most camcorders use a single imaging sensor with integrated colour filters, per pixel, to enable red, green and blue to be sensed, each on their own set of pixels. The individual pixel filters present a significant manufacturing challenge. In this case the exact alignment of the three sensors so that the red, green and blue components of the video output are correctly aligned, Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) the manufacturing challenge. The recorder writes the video signal onto a recording medium, such as magnetic videotape.
Since the record function involves many signal-processing steps, some distortion and noise historically appeared on the stored video; playback of the stored signal did not have the exact characteristics and detail as a live video feed. All camcorders have a recorder-controlling section, allowing the user to switch the recorder into playback mode for reviewing recorded footage, and an image-control section controlling exposure, focus and color balance.
The image recorded Theme And Variations - Julian Bream, John Williams - Together not be limited to what appeared in the viewfinder.
For documenting events as in law enforcementthe field of view overlays the time and date of the recording along the top and bottom of the image. The police car or constable badge number to which the recorder was given, the car's speed at the time of recording, compass direction and geographical coordinates may also be seen.
Camcorders are often classified by their storage device ; VHSVHS-CBetamaxVideo8 are examples of late 20th century videotape -based camcorders which record video in analog form.
Digital video camcorder formats include Digital8MiniDVDVDhard disk drivedirect to disk recording and solid-state, semiconductor flash memory. While all these formats record video in digital form, Digital8, MiniDV, DVD and hard-disk drives  have no longer been manufactured in consumer camcorders since In the earliest analog camcorders the imaging device is vacuum-tube technology, in which the charge of a light-sensitive target was directly proportional to the amount of light striking it; Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) Vidicon is an example of such an imaging tube.
Both are analog detectors, using photodiodes to pass a current proportional to the light striking them. The current is then digitised before being electronically scanned and fed to the imager's output. The main difference between the two devices is how the scanning is Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic). In the CCD the diodes are sampled simultaneously, and the scan passes the digitised data from one register to the next. In CMOS devices, the diodes are sampled directly by the scanning logic.
Digital video storage retains higher-quality video than analog storage, especially on the prosumer and strictly consumer levels. Digital video does not experience colour bleedingjitter, or fade. Unlike analog formats, digital formats do not experience generation loss during dubbing ; however, they are more prone to complete loss. A digital recording is Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) vulnerable to wrinkles or stretches in the tape which could erase data, but tracking and error-correction code on the tape compensates for most defects.
On analog media, similar damage registers as "noise" in the video, leaving a deteriorated but watchable video. An analog recording may be "usable" after its storage media deteriorates severely, but  slight media degradation in Yamato - Flametal - Master Of The Aire recordings may trigger an "all or nothing" failure; the digital recording Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) be unplayable without extensive restoration.
Codecs storing each frame individually, easing frame-specific scene editing, are common in professional use. The transfer is done in real timeso the transfer of a minute tape requires one hour to transfer and about 13GB of disk space for the raw footage plus space for rendered files and other media. A tapeless camcorder is a camcorder that does not use video tape for the digital recording of video productions as 20th century ones did.
Tapeless camcorders record video as digital computer files onto data storage devices such as optical discshard disk drives and solid-state flash memory cards. Inexpensive pocket video cameras use flash memory cardswhile some more expensive camcorders use solid-state drives or SSD; similar flash technology is used on semi-pro and high-end professional video cameras for ultrafast transfer of high-definition television HDTV content.
They are normally capable of still-image capture to JPEG format additionally. Consumer-grade tapeless camcorders include a USB port to transfer Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) onto a computer. Since the consumer market favors Watch What You Say (Original Mix) - Various - Defqon.1 2017 (File, MP3, MP3) of use, portability and price, most consumer-grade camcorders emphasize handling and automation over audio and video performance.
Most devices with camcorder capability are camera phones or compact digital camerasin which video is a secondary capability. Some pocket cameras, mobile phones and camcorders are shock- dust- and waterproof.
This market has followed an evolutionary path driven by miniaturization and cost reduction enabled by progress in design and manufacture. Miniaturization reduces the imager's ability to gather light; designers have balanced improvements in sensor sensitivity with size reduction, shrinking the camera imager and optics while maintaining relatively noise-free video in daylight.
Indoor or dim-light shooting is generally noisy, and in such conditions artificial lighting is recommended. Mechanical controls cannot shrink below a certain size, and manual camera operation has given way to camera-controlled automation for every shooting parameter including focus, aperture, shutter speed and color balance. The few models with manual override are menu-driven. Outputs include USB 2. The high end of the consumer market emphasizes user control and advanced shooting modes.
More-expensive consumer camcorders offer manual exposure control, HDMI output and external audio input, progressive-scan frame rates 24fps, 25fps, 30fps and higher-quality lenses than basic models. Field tests have shown that most consumer camcorders regardless of price produce noisy video in low light.
Before the 21st century, video editing required two recorders and a desktop video workstation to control them. A typical home personal computer can hold several hours of standard-definition video, and is fast enough to edit footage without additional upgrades.
Most consumer camcorders are sold with basic video editing softwareso users can create their own DVDs or share edited footage online. Sincenearly all camcorders sold are digital. None of the consumer-class camcorders announced Angel Caído - Guitar Mafia - Las Jovenes Y Bellas Criaturas De Los Bajos Fondos the International Consumer Electronics Show recorded on tape.
Video-capture capability is not confined to camcorders. Cellphonesdigital single-lens reflex and compact digicamslaptops and personal media players offer video-capture capability, but most multipurpose devices offer less video-capture functionality than an equivalent camcorder. Most lack manual adjustments, audio input, autofocus and zoom. Few capture in standard TV-video formats p60, p60, i30recording in either non-TV resolutions x, x or slower frame rates 15 or 30 fps.
A multipurpose device used as a camcorder offers inferior handling, audio and video Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic), which limits its utility for extended or adverse shooting situations. The camera phone developed video capability during the early 21st century, reducing sales of low-end camcorders. DSLR cameras with high-definition video were also introduced early in the 21st century. Although they still have the handling and usability deficiencies of other multipurpose devices, HDSLR video offers the shallow depth-of-field and interchangeable lenses lacking in consumer camcorders.
Professional video cameras with these Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) are more expensive than the most expensive video-capable DSLR. Combo-cameras combine full-feature still cameras and camcorders in a single unit. The Various - Progressive • December 1996 (U-matic) Xacti HD1 was the first such unit, combining the features of a 5. Canon and Sony have introduced camcorders with still-photo performance approaching that of a digicam, and Panasonic has introduced a DSLR body with video features approaching that of a camcorder.
Slightly larger than a smartphonethe Flip Video was a basic camcorder with record, zoom, playback and browse buttons and a USB jack for uploading video.
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